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Formal introduction to Biostatistics

In biostatistics, a lot of emphasis is given towards sampling activity. That means the data collected through clinical trial processes or similar kind of activities is used to get a representative fraction from a certain population. The analysis of this representative population allows determination of the overall population for the data. There are two methods employed for this sampling activity.

One involves the random sampling method whereas the other one is known as probability sampling. Random sampling also has its own variations like stratified or simple sampling. In case of non-random sampling of biostatistics data there are options in terms of quota, purposive, or convenient sampling. The simple random sampling offers every member of the population an equal chance to become part of the ultimate sample.

However, in case of stratified random sampling, the entire population is split into groups or strata based on certain in built characteristics. Cluster sampling is a process that involves division of the population group into small clusters that allows random selection of some of these groups for final assessment. Purposive sampling is a type of non-probability sampling that allows the researcher to select participants depending on the criteria set for the research activity.

In a similar manner, convenience sampling involves selection of sample as part of the population that is readily available for the researcher and is convenient for drawing conclusion. The scale of measurement used for research activities has different set of rules for each level of work and employs certain restrictions as stipulated by higher authority. Four measurement scales are employed for the process like ratio, interval, nominal, and ordinal.

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